Urine, abnormal

Urine may be produced in abnormal amounts or have an abnormal appearance or composition. Conditions of abnormal production of urine include excessive production (see urination, excessive), oliguria, and anuria. Abnormal appearances of urine include cloudiness (which may be caused by a urinary tract infection, a calculus, or the presence of salts); haematuria; discoloration from certain foods or drugs; and frothiness (which may be caused by an excess of protein). Abnormal composition of the urine may occur in diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, and sometimes glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome, as well as in other kidney disorders such as Fanconi’s syndrome and renal tubular acidosis.


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