Nephrotic syndrome

A collection of symptoms and signs resulting from damage to the glomeruli (filtering units of the kidney), causing severe proteinuria (loss of protein from the bloodstream into the urine). The syndrome may be a result of diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis (accumulation in tissues of an abnormal protein called amyloid), glomerulonephritis, severe hypertension, reactions to poisons, and adverse reactions to drugs. The main symptom is swelling of the legs and face due to oedema. Also, fluid may collect in the chest cavity, resulting in pleural effusion, or in the abdomen, causing ascites. Diarrhoea, lethargy, and anorexia may occur. Treatment is of the underlying condition. A low-sodium diet may be recommended, and diuretic drugs may be given to reduce oedema. If the concentration of protein in the blood is very low, protein may need to be given intravenously.


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