The pale yellow fluid produced by the kidneys and excreted from the body via the ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is produced when blood is filtered through the kidneys to remove waste products and excess water or chemical substances. The main component is urea. A healthy adult produces between 0.5 and 2 litres of urine per day. The minimum volume of urine needed to remove all waste products is about 0.5 litres. A high fluid intake increases the amount of urine produced; high fluid loss from sweating, vomiting, or diarrhoea leads to reduced production.


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