Surgical removal of 1 or both of the kidneys. One of the most common reasons for nephrectomy is to remove a cancerous tumour (see kidney cancer). A kidney may also be removed if it is not functioning normally due to injury, infection, or the presence of stones (see calculus, urinary tract), or if it is causing severe hypertension (high blood pressure). On removal of a single kidney the remaining kidney takes over the workload. If both kidneys are removed, the patient requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.


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