Insufficient blood supply to a specific organ or tissue. It is usually caused by disease of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, but may also result from injury, constriction of a vessel due to spasm of the muscles in the vessel wall, or inadequate blood flow due to inefficient pumping of the heart. Symptoms depend on the area affected. Treatment may include vasodilator drugs to widen the blood vessels or, in more severe cases, an angioplasty or bypass operation.


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