An abnormally high level of calcium in the blood, commonly caused by hyperparathyroidism. Cancer may also cause hypercalcaemia, either by spreading to bone or producing abnormal hormones that cause bones to release calcium. Less commonly, the condition is a result of excessive intake of vitamin D or of certain inflammatory disorders, such as sarcoidosis. Hypercalcaemia causes nausea, vomiting, lethargy, depression, thirst, and passing urine excessively. Higher blood levels of calcium produce confusion, extreme fatigue, and muscle weakness. Without treatment, the condition can result in cardiac arrhythmias, kidney failure, coma, and even death. Long-standing hypercalcaemia may cause nephrocalcinosis or kidney stones (see calculus, urinary tract). Diagnosis is by blood tests. Treatment is of the underlying cause.


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