The hand is made up of the wrist, palm, and fingers. Movement of the hand is achieved mainly by tendons that attach the muscles of the forearm to the bones of the hand (the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges) or by short muscles in the palm of the hand. The hands are highly susceptible to injury. Dermatitis is also common. The hand may be affected by Dupuytren’s contracture or Volkmann’s contracture. Degeneration of a tendon sheath on the upper side of the wrist may cause a harmless swelling called a ganglion. Osteoarthritis commonly affects the joint at the base of the thumb. Rheumatoid arthritis may cause deformity.


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