Bladder, disorders of

A group of disorders affecting the bladder, including inflammation ( cystitis) usually caused by a bacterial infection; calculi (stones); impairment of the nerve supply; and tumours. In men, obstruction to urine flow from the bladder by an enlarged prostate gland may cause urinary retention. Tumours of, or injury to, the spinal cord may affect the nerves controlling the bladder, leading either to retention or incontinence. Bladder stones are caused by the precipitation of substances that are present in the urine. Injury to the bladder is uncommon but may occur if the pelvis is fractured when the bladder is full. Disturbed bladder control can also result from nerve degeneration in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, or dementia. An unstable or irritable bladder is a common condition and is sometimes associated with a urinary tract infection or prolapse of the uterus. Tension or anxiety can cause frequent urination. In children, delayed bladder control (see enuresis) most often results from delayed maturation of the nervous system.


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