Acid–base balance

A combination of mechanisms that ensures that the body’s fluids are neither too acid nor too alkaline ( alkalis are also called bases). The body has three mechanisms for maintaining normal acid–base balance: buffers, breathing, and the activities of the kidneys. Buffers are substances in the blood that neutralize acid or alkaline wastes. Rapid breathing results in the blood becoming less acidic; slow breathing has the opposite effect. The kidneys regulate the amounts of acid or alkaline wastes in the urine. Disturbances of the body’s acid–base balance result in either acidosis (excessive blood acidity) or alkalosis (excessive blood alkalinity).


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